Title: Simultaneous and Synergic Production of Bioavailable Iron and Reactive Iodine Species in Ice
Authors: Kitae Kim,Sunil Paul M. Menacherry, Jungwon Kim, Hyun Young Chung, Daun Jeong, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, and Wonyong Choi*
Abstract: The bioavailable iron is essential for all living organisms, and the dissolution of iron oxide contained in dust and soil is one of the major sources of bioavailable iron in nature. Iodine in the polar atmosphere is related to ozone depletion, mercury oxidation, and cloud condensation nuclei formation. Here we show that the chemical reaction between iron oxides and iodide (I–) is markedly accelerated to produce bioavailable iron (Fe(II)aq) and tri-iodide (I3–: evaporable in the form of I2) in frozen solution (both with and without light irradiation), while it is negligible in aqueous phase. The freeze-enhanced production of Fe(II)aq and tri-iodide is ascribed to the freeze concentration of iron oxides, iodides, and protons in the ice grain boundaries. The outdoor experiments carried out in midlatitude during a winter day (Pohang, Korea: 36°0′ N, 129°19′ E) and in an Antarctic environment (King George Island: 62°13′ S 58°47′ W) also showed the enhanced generation of Fe(II)aq and tri-iodide in ice. This study proposes a previously unknown abiotic mechanism and source of bioavailable iron and active iodine species in the polar environment. The pulse input of bioavailable iron and reactive iodine when ice melts may influence the oceanic primary production and CCN formation.